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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作(zuo)者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心是(shi)(shi)一(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)可(ke)以(yi)对加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)进(jin)行高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)工(gong)(gong)具能(neng)够如(ru)此快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)除了因为高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)精密度(du)和成熟的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)技术之外更多的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)还是(shi)(shi)得利与其(qi)优秀的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系统,在当前的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机床(chuang)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)行业中(zhong)为视线高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)稳定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)精度(du)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)运行快(kuai)速(su)(su)(su)且功能(neng)强大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算(suan)机数(shu)控(kong)系统是(shi)(shi)必(bi)不可(ke)少,需要注意的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)控(kong)系统必(bi)须(xu)能(neng)够足够快(kuai)地处理数(shu)控(kong)程序(xu)代码(ma)段以(yi)保持程序(xu)中(zhong)规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)进(jin)给速(su)(su)(su)度(du)。

 

高(gao)速加工(gong)(gong)中心在(zai)实(shi)际(ji)运行(xing)中是计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)控系统(tong)用(yong)于(yu)(yu)测量一(yi)次(ci)工(gong)(gong)作台(tai)的(de)实(shi)际(ji)位置(zhi)并(bing)发出一(yi)次(ci)进给命令(ling)所(suo)用(yong)的(de)时间,对(dui)于(yu)(yu)伺服周(zhou)期和代码(ma)段(duan)(duan)处(chu)理时间是计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)控系统(tong)的(de)两(liang)个重(zhong)要(yao)参(can)数(shu)及其概念。计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)控系统(tong)处(chu)理并(bing)完成一(yi)条加工(gong)(gong)指令(ling)代码(ma)段(duan)(duan)规定(ding)的(de)位移所(suo)花费的(de)时间。 计(ji)(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)控系统(tong)的(de)这两(liang)个参(can)数(shu)对(dui)于(yu)(yu)高(gao)速加工(gong)(gong)中心来(lai)说非常重(zhong)要(yao),因为他们(men)将决(jue)定(ding)机床的(de)加工(gong)(gong)速度和加工(gong)(gong)精度。在(zai)这里,精度意味(wei)着在(zai)采用(yong)线(xian)性(xing)插补时,用(yong)直线(xian)段(duan)(duan)来(lai)逼近零件轮廊所(suo)允(yun)许的(de)最大误差。

 

我们可以看到在高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)必(bi)(bi)须(xu)保证形成(cheng)精(jing)(jing)确的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji),另外,在用直线(xian)段来逼近零(ling)件(jian)轮廊(lang)时(shi)(shi),为了(le)保证精(jing)(jing)度,直线(xian)段势(shi)必(bi)(bi)很短,从而(er)使得零(ling)件(jian)程(cheng)序变(bian)得很长。基于此,计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)需要一个(ge)32位的(de)微(wei)处理器,有(you)(you)(you)时(shi)(shi)甚至需要多(duo)个(ge)微(wei)处理器,以完成(cheng)高速(su)(su)插补、高速(su)(su)段处理和良(liang)好的(de)待(dai)(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为了(le)能(neng)预先(xian)知道刀(dao)具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)(jing)以避(bi)免在拐(guai)角 处出现事故(gu),计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)最好是(shi)具(ju)有(you)(you)(you)较多(duo)段加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong) NC代码(ma)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)的(de)能(neng)力(li)(li),这与司机必(bi)(bi)须(xu)有(you)(you)(you)良(liang)好的(de)视野 范围才(cai)能(neng)高速(su)(su)驾驶一辆汽车有(you)(you)(you)些类似。 目前所有(you)(you)(you)较高水平的(de)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)都具(ju)有(you)(you)(you)待(dai)(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)能(neng)力(li)(li)。所谓待(dai)(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)在控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)同时(shi)(shi)扫描待(dai)(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)代码(ma),看刀(dao)具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)(jing)是(shi)否有(you)(you)(you)方(fang)(fang)向上的(de)突然改变(bian),如果计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)发现前面(mian)必(bi)(bi)须(xu)改变(bian)进给方(fang)(fang)向时(shi)(shi),自(zi)动执行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)减速(su)(su)程(cheng)序,以避(bi)免高速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心偏离程(cheng)序中(zhong)规定的(de)切削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)路径(jing)(jing)(jing)。


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